This post contains information about computer and its generations.
Computer and its generations, History, components
What is a COMPUTER???
- The computer is an electronic device that manipulates data, accepts and stores the input data for further use, processes the data, and produces the output data in the required format.
- Charles Babbage is known as the “Father of Computer”.
- Alan Turing is regarded as the father of modern computer science . Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) is considered to be the first purpose electronic digital computer.
- Atanasoff Berry Computer (ABC) was the world’s first unprogrammable electronic digital computer
Speed, Reliability, and Storage are the parameters on which the power of the computer is judged.
First Generation (1946-1959)
- Vacuum tubes were used.
- Batch processing operating system was used.
- Machine and Assembly languages were used.
- Used for scientific; later simple business system.
- Some computers of this generation were: ENIAC ; EDVAC; UNIVAC; IBM-701 ; IBM-650
Second Generation (1959-1965)
- Transistors were used.
- Multi-Bag remaining, Time sharing operating system were used.
- Magnetic cores were used as primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. Main memory was 100KB.
- Assembly language and high-level programming language like FORTRAN, COBOL, Algol were used.
- Used for extensive business applications, engineering design optimization scientific research.
- Some computers of this generation were: IBM 1620; IBM 7094 ; CDC 1604 ; CDC 3600 ; UNIVAC 1108
Third Generation (1965-1971)
- Integrated circuits were used in place of transistors.
- Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real-time, Multi-programming Operating System were used.
- High-level languages FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68, etc were used.
- Used for Database management system and online systems.
- Some computers of this generation were: IBM-360 series; Honeywell-6000 series; PDP (Personal Data Processor); IBM-370/168; TDC-316.
Fourth Generation (1971-1980)
- Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits were used.
- Semiconductor memory and Winchester disk were used as the memory devices.
- Time sharing networks were used
- Fortan 77, Pascal, Cobol high level languages were used.
- Concept of internet was introduced, computers became easily available.
- Some computers of this generation were: DEC 10; STAR 1000; PDP 11; CRAY-1 (Super Computer); CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer)
Fifth Generation (1980-till date)
- VLSI technology became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology
- Introduced AI(Artificial Intelligence) concept which is an emerging branch of Computer Science that interprets means and methods of making computers think like human beings.
- C, C++, Java, .Net -higher level languages are used.
- Some computers types of this generation are: Desktop ; Laptop ; NoteBook ; UltraBook ; ChromeBook