HUMAN ENDOCRINE GLANDS

Here is Biology Notes on HUMAN ENDOCRINE GLANDS for the upcoming SSC CGL and RRB exam. Below is the table containing the different glands, Hormones secreted by these Glands and their functions.

HUMAN ENDOCRINE GLANDS

HUMAN ENDOCRINE GLANDS

Gland Hormone Functions
Hypothalamus Releasing and inhibiting hormones and factors
Posterior pituitary hormones produced here
Control of anterior pituitary hormones
Posterior pituitary gland Receives hormones from hypothalamus – no hormones synthesised here
Stores and secretes – Oxytocin
 
 
Ejection o milk from mammary Gland, contraction of uterus during birth
Anterior pituitary Gland Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) (Vaspopressin)

Follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Luteinising hormone (LH)

Prolactin

Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH)

Andrenocorticotrophic hormone(ACTH or corticotrophin)

Growth hormone (GH)

Reduction of urine secretion from kidney

In male, stimulates spermatogenesis
In female, growth of ovarian follicles

In male, testosterone secretion
In female, secretion of oestrogen and proestrone, ovulation and maintenance of corpus luteum

Stimulates milk production and secretion

Synthesis and Secretion of thyroid hormones,growth of thyroid glands

Synthesis and secretion of adrenal cortex hormones, growth of gland

Protein Synthesis, growth, especially of bone limbs

Parathyroid Gland Parathormone Increase blood calcium level
Decrease Blood phosphate level
Thyroid Gland Triodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4)
Calcitonin
Regulation of basal metabolic rate, growth and development
Decreases blood calcium level
Adrenal Cortex Glucocorticoids(Cortisol)
 
 
Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
Protein breakdown, glucose/glcogen synthesis, adaptation to stress, anti inflammatory/ allergy effects
Na+ retention in Kidney, Na+ and K+ ratios in extracellular and intracellular fluids, raises blood pressure
Adrenal medulla Adrenaline (epinephrine)
 
 
 
Noradrenaline(norepinephrine)
Increases rate and force of heartbeat, constriction of skin amd gut capillaries
Dillation of arterioles of Heart and skeletal muscles, raising blood glucode level
General constriction of small arteries, raising or blood pressure
Islets of Langerhans Insulin (beta cells)
 
Glucagon(alpha cells)
Decreases blood glucose level, increases glucose and amino acid uptake and utilisation by cells
Increases blood glucose level, breakdown of glycogen to glucose in liver
Stomach
Duodenum
Stomach
Secretin
 
 
Cholecystokinin (Pancreozymin)
Secretion of Gastric juices
Secretion of pancreatic juices
inhibits gastric secretion

Emptying of gall bladder and release of pancreatic juice into dudenum

Kidney
Ovary
Renin
Oestrogens
Proestrogen
Conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin
oestrous cycle
Gestation, inhibition of ovalution
Corpus luteum Proestrogen and Oestrogen
Proestrogen and Oestrogen
Growth and development of uterus
Foetal development
Placenta Chorionic gonadotrophin
Human placental lactogen
Maintenance of Corpus luteum
Stimulates mammary growth
Testis Testosterone Male secondary sexual characteristics

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