COMPREHENSION

This post is related to the English Comprehension practice set which usually come in every exam.

    COMPREHENSION -1


Read the following comprehension carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in BOLD to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.

It is difficult to imagine the extraordinary number of controls on Indian industry before 1991.
Entrepreneurs needed permission to invest and could be penalized for exceeding production capacity. Even with the given investment capacity they had, entering certain areas was prohibited as these were reserved for the public sector. If they had to import anything, they required licenses. To get these licenses was tough, they had to persuade a bureaucrat that the item was required but even so permission was unavailable if somebody was already producing it in India. The impact of the ‘reforms was not instantaneously and permanently wonderful. In India’s case it began to show after about a year and-a-half. After 1993, there came three years of rapid industrial growth of about 8% or so. But, in the second half of the 90’s there was a tapering of industrial growth and investment. After 1997 and the East Asian crisis there was global slow down which had an impact on the Indian industry. But, the last few years there has been a tremendous upturn.With the rise of investment industrial growth has reached double or close. However even during the period when industrial growth was not that rapid, there is a lot of evidence that positive results of the reforms were seen. There were companies that didn’t look at all internally but instead performed remarkably in the highly competitive global market.

For instance, the software sector’s performance was outstanding in an almost totally global market.Reliance built a world-class refinery. Tatas developed an indigenously designed car. The success of the software sector has created much higher expectations from and much high confidence in what Indian industry can do. On the Government’s side it’s a vindication that liberalization of both domestic and external policies, including the increased inflow of Foreign Direct Investment, has created an environment in which industry can do well, has done well and is preparing to do even better. What they need is not sops, but good quality infrastructure. For the 11th Plan an industrial growth rate of around 12% is projected. It will have methods of developing infrastructure, which will close the deficit. This can be done through increased investment in public sector for those infrastructure areas, which cannot attract private investment, and through efforts to improve private participation in different ways of public- private participation. In the early stages of reforms, the liberalization of trade policies and a shift to a market- determined exchange rate had the effect of removing constraints on agriculture in terms of depressed prices. The removal of protection on industry helped to produce a more level playing field,because the earlier system was extremely unfair to agriculture. The lesson to be learnt from there forms process is to persevere in reforming the strategic parts of the economy, which will lead to even higher growth rate.India has to do better than its current average growth rate of 8%and ensure that benefits from this higher growth go beyond industry and urban areas and extend to agriculture.

1.Which of the following was NOT a restriction on Indian industry prior to 1991 in the comprehension?
(i) A private business needed government sanction to invest in any sector
(ii) Industrial growth had to be maintained at a certain percentage fixed by the government.
(iii) It was difficult to obtain licenses.
A. All i, ii and iii
B. Only ii
C. Only iii
D. Both i and iii
E. None of these

2.How did software companies deal with slow industrial growth in an open Indian economy?
A. They focused on strengthening their position in the domestic market.
B. They campaigned for infrastructure development.
C. They diversified into different sectors.
D. They entered into partnerships with public sector enterprises in reserved sectors.
E. They targeted global markets.

3.Which of the following is NOT true in the context of the comprehension?
(i) India experienced a slowdown in growth during the late 1990s because initially the economic growth rate was too rapid.
(ii) There were a few stringent regulations on Indian industries which kept economic growth below 12%
(iii) Companies did not get import licenses for goods if they were being indigenously produced.
A. Only i
B. Both ii & iii
C. Both i and ii
D. All i,ii and iii
E. None of these

4.Why was investment by private businesses disallowed in certain sectors?
A. To ensure proper development in these sectors
B. To prevent corruption in key sectors like infrastructure
C. To ensure steady not inconsistent growth in key sectors
D. To protect the interests of the public sector in these sectors
E. None of these

5.What was the impact of the flourishing Indian software sector?
A. Other companies were unable to be competitive in the global market
B. It fuelled expectations of a good performance from the Indian economy.
C. Growth rate rose to 12%.
D. It created cut throat competition among software companies which would hinder the sector in the long run.
E. None of these

6.Which of the following factors was responsible for the fall In India’s growth rate in the late 1990s?
A. The implementation of economic reforms was too rapid.
B. It was expected after achieving & high growth rate of 10%.
C. There was a slowdown in the global economy.
D. There were sanctions against East Asian countries by WTO.
E. The software sector grew but the other sectors were neglected.

7.Which of the following can be said about the reforms of 1991 in the comprehension?
A. They benefited Indian industry immediately
B. All Indian companies began to focus on indigenous development instead of looking for opportunities abroad.
C. They were targeted only at the software sector.
D. India was among the worst affected countries by the East Asian economic crisis because it had opened up its economy
E. They encouraged foreign direct Investment in India.

8.What does the author recommend to ensure that the industrial sector continues to perform better?
A. Subsidies should be provided in infrastructure development
B. Government should keep control of and monitor all infrastructure projects.
C. Wipe out any infrastructure deficit by transferring responsibility of those projects to the private sector
D. Ensure a combination of public and private sector involvement in developing infrastructure,
E. None of these

9.What is the author’s opinion about the government’s decision to liberalise the economy in 1991?
A. It was beneficial because it created confidence in the Indian economy.
B. The timing was wrong since the economy experienced a slowdown in growth rate,
C. It led to a focus on software and other sectors were neglected
D. Foreign companies took advantage of the new policies and exploited certain sectors
E. None of these

10.How did the economic reforms affect the agriculture sector?
A. A system of market determined exchange rate was introduced.
B. Constraints in agriculture increased.
C. Prices were depressed because there was a removal of protection of the sector.
D. Agriculture growth rate doubled.
E. The agriculture sector was not a part of the reforms process.

Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word given in bold as used in the comprehension.

11.Extraordinary
A. unusual
B. wonderful
C. rare
D. beautiful
E. small

12.Rise
A. stand
B. increase
C. slope
D. upward
E. progress

13.Projected
A. discussed
B. needed
C. estimated
D. achieved
E. thrown

Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word given in bold as used in the comprehension.

14.Attract
A. ugly
B. offend
C. push
D. sick
E. repel

15.Persevere
A. give up
B. hide
C. chase
D. disturb
E. slope

ANSWERS
1. B   2. E   3. C   4. E   5. B

6. C   7. E   8. D   9. A   10. A

11. A   12. B   13. C   14. E   15. A

    COMPREHENSION – 2

Directions (Q.1–11): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold in the passage to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

What is immediately needed today is the establishment of a World Government or an International Federation of mankind. It is the utmost necessity of the world today, and all those persons who wish to see all human beings happy and prosperous naturally feel it keenly. Of course, at times we feel that many of the problem of our political, social, linguistic and cultural life would come to an end if there were one Government all over the world. Travelers, businessmen, seekers of knowledge and teachers of righteousness know very well that great impediments and obstructions are faced by them when they pass from one country to another, exchange goods, get information, and make an efforts to spread their good gospel among their fellow-men. In the past, religious sects divided one set of people against another, colour of skin or shape of the body set one against the other.
But today when philosophical light has exploded the darkness that was created by religious differences, and when scientific knowledge has classified the superstitions, they have enabled human beings of all religious views and of all races and colours to come in frequent contact with one another . It is the governments of various countries that keep poeple of one country apart from, those of another. They create artificial barriers, unnatural distinctions, unhealthy isolation, unnecessary fears and dangers in the minds of common men who by their nature want to live in friendship with their fellow-men.But all these evils would cease to exist if there were one Government all over the world.
1.What divides people of a country against another?
(a) Different religions
(b) Different language
(c) Different social and political systems of different people
(d) Government of various countries

2.What is the urgent heed of the world today?
(a) The establishment of an international economic order.
(b) The establishment of a world government.
(c) The creation of a cultural international social order.
(d) The raising of an international spiritual army.

3.What will the world Government be expected to do?
(a) it will arrange for interplanetary contacts
(b) it will end all wars for all time to come
(c) it will bring about a moral regeneration of mankind
(d) it will kill the evil spirit in man

4.Choose the word which is SIMILAR in meaning as the word “righteousness” as used in the passage.
(a) rectitude (b) religiosity
(c) requirement (d) scrupulousness

5.Which of the following problems has not been mentioned in the passage as likely to be solved with the establishment of world Government?
(a) Social Problems (b) Political Problems
(c) Cultural Problems (d) Economic Problems

6.Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘implediments’ as used in the passage.
(a) handicaps (b) furtherance
(c) providence (d) hindrances

7.The most appropriate title of the above passage may be ………..
(a) The evils of the world order.
(b) The man can make his destiny.
(c) The need of world Government.
(d) The role of Religion in the Modern Times.

8.What was the factor, according to the passage, that set one man against another?
(a) Material prosperity of certain people in the midst of grinding poverty.
(b) Superior physical strength of some persons.
(c) Colour of skin or shape of the body.
(d) Some people being educated and other illiterate.

9.The theory of racial superiority stands falsified today by ……..
(a) knowledge derived from scientific advances.
(b) the ascendancy of people who were here to fore considered of inferior racial stock.
(c) the achievements of the so called backward countries in every field of life.
(d) the precedence given to the physical powers of different races.

10.In the part religious sects ………….
(a) united the people with one another.
(b) Interfered in political affairs.
(c) did a good job by way of spreading message of love and peace.
(d) divided one set of people from another.

ANSWERS
1. D   2. B   3. C   4. A   5. D

6. B   7. C   8. C   9. C   10. D